Tularaemia is an infection caused by the bacteria Francisella tularensis. It is commonly found in a range of wildlife species across the northern hemisphere but, until recently, was believed to be absent from Australian wildlife.
Different subspecies of tularaemia vary in their virulence. A single case of Francisella tularensis novicida was reported in a human in the Northern Territory in 2003. In 2011, two separate cases of F. t. holarctica biovar japonica were diagnosed in two women who had a history which included being scratched and/ or bitten by common ringtail possums in western Tasmania. Testing of a small number of possums from western Tasmania and other areas did not reveal evidence of tularaemia.
In September 2016, tularaemia was detected for the first time in Australian animals, following Next Generation molecular analysis of archived samples, collected from two separate clusters of common ringtail possum deaths that had occurred in NSW in 2002 and 2003. Findings of F. t. holarctica were confirmed by PCR and were found to be genomically very similar to that found in the 2011 Australian human cases. For more information see the following links:
NSW DPI - Tularaemia
WHA Fact Sheet - Tularaemia and Australian wildlife
National Guidelines for Sample Submission – Tularaemia – Diagnostic Testing
Department of Health - Zika Factsheet - the Basics
Queensland Health - Zika virus
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [USA] - Zika Virus
[This is a summary of the report in Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly, Volume 20, Issue 3]
NSW DPI – Bellinger River Snapping Turtle Response
Bellingen Shire Council – Bellinger River Snapping Turtles – Latest News
Zhang J et al (2018) Identification of a novel nidovirus as a potential cause of large-scale mortalities in the endangered Bellinger River snapping turtle (Myuchelys georgesi). PLoS ONE 13(10): e0205209.
Spencer RJ et al (2018) Profiling a possible rapid extinction event in a long-lived species. Biological Conservation, 221, 190-197
Additional information for NSW can be found at the end of the CVO Bulletin. Links to ABLV information in other jurisdictions are available on the WHA Resources (Expand 'Diseases and disease agents’ in the Categories list, select 'Australian Bat Lyssavirus’ and look for ‘Australian Bat Lyssavirus Resources’ for your state/territory).
NSW DPI - Pigeon paramyxovirus and Veterinary testing
Agriculture Victoria - Pigeon paramyxovirus - information for veterinarians
DPIPWE Tasmania - Avian paramyxovirus in pigeons
PIRSA South Australia - Pigeon paramyxovirus
DPIRD Western Australia - Pigeon paramyxovirus
DAF Queensland - Avian paramyxovirus in pigeons
WHA fact sheet - Avian paramyxoviruses and Australian wild birds
Plant toxicity – AHSQ Vol 19 Issue 2 & AHSQ Vol 20 Issue 4
Starvation – AHSQ Vol 20 Issue 3
Parasitism – AHSQ Vol 19 Issue 3
Other/unidentified causes – AHSQ Vol 15 Issue 2 & AHSQ Vol 19 Issue 1
WHA Fact Sheet - Mortalities of large macropods
NSW DPI - information on Hendra Virus
Queensland DAF - Information on Hendra Virus