Technical Documents

Wildlife biosecurity guidelines

National Wildlife Biosecurity Guidelines

The National Wildlife Biosecurity Guidelines have been developed to document best practice biosecurity measures for those working with Australian wildlife. The guidelines are intended for all people who work (or interact) with wildlife including wildlife managers, researchers, veterinarians, carers and others. All organisations which work with wildlife are encouraged to use the information in these guidelines to assess their own biosecurity risks and to develop and maintain an optimum level of biosecurity for their operations. Click here for the Guidelines. WHA has also developed a one-page information sheet.

National Zoo Biosecurity Manual - ZAA website New window icon

This manual has been developed by veterinary leaders and advisors within the Australian zoo industry to document best practice biosecurity measures currently being adopted by the zoo industry.

Wildlife disease management & response guidelines

For AUSVETPLAN disease strategies, please go to Animal Health Australia website New window icon

National Guidelines for Management of Disease in Free-ranging Australian Wildlife

The National Guidelines for Management of Disease in Free-ranging Australian Wildlife have been developed as a practical document that outlines the science of wildlife disease management and describes what options might be available to manage wildlife diseases in an Australian context.
The focus of the Guidelines is on management options for disease in native wildlife at a population level and are intended for use by anyone involved in management of a disease in Australian wildlife.
The Guidelines emphasise that wildlife disease management should be undertaken as a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort, with input from a wide range of experts and stakeholders including Indigenous people. Click here for the Guidelines. WHA has also developed a one-page information sheet.

Emergency Wildlife Disease Response Guidelines

These guidelines use Australia's Veterinary Emergency Response Plan (AUSVETPLAN) framework and provide a high-level document for guiding the management of an emergency wildlife disease (EWD) response in Australian native animals. This is a living document and we encourage comments and feedback on the document from emergency managers and others who may be involved in any response.  Please send these comments to for consideration for inclusion.

White-nose Syndrome Response Guidelines

White-nose syndrome, a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has caused significant mortalities of insectivorous bats in North America. P. destructans has not been identified in Australia. These guidelines have been developed by Wildlife Health Australia in consultation with stakeholder groups, to assist response agencies in the event of an incursion of this exotic disease into bats in Australia.

Ehlichia canis & Wild Dingoes Disease Risk Assessment

Ehrlichia canis is a tick-borne disease of dogs that emerged in Australia in May 2020. The disease has had a devastating impact on dogs in remote communities in the NT and northern WA, where it is now considered established. Dingoes are closely related to domestic dogs, but there is very little information on the likely impacts of E. canis on wild dingoes. Wildlife Health Australia undertook this Disease Risk Assessment to examine the possible risks of Ehrlichia canis to wild dingoes, to identify gaps in knowledge and to identify actions that could be undertaken to reduce the risk that E. canis poses to wild dingoes.

Guidelines for the treatment of Australian wildlife with sarcoptic mange

Sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is an emerging infectious disease causing significant morbidity and mortality, with serious animal welfare impacts. Mange is known to affect wombats and other Australian native species. The treatment of mange in wildlife is challenging. Guidelines were developed through the NESP Threatened Species Recovery Hub. The document consists of two separate sections: Part 1) Treatment guidelines including a summary mange treatment information sheet and recommendations for future research; underpinned by Part 2) a Literature review of current knowledge and treatment methods. The treatment guidelines are for stakeholders who are directly involved in managing and delivering treatment. The recommendations are for those working to coordinate the overall response to mange. The literature review provides a snapshot of existing research-based and anecdotal knowledge. To access the guidelines: Part 1 - Treatment guidelines; Two-page information sheetPart 2 - Literature review

Disease Strategy Manual for Chytridiomycosis

This strategy sets out the disease control principles for use in an emergency incident caused by Chytridiomycosis / Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Australia. Chytridiomycosis was introduced into Australia at least by 1978 and is thought to have caused amphibian declines and extinctions in 1979. A disease investigation began in 1993 and the novel disease chytridiomycosis was found to be the cause of widespread amphibian declines and extinctions. Now the disease is widespread throughout most of its preferred range and there are only a few uninfected populations where chytridiomycosis may have an impact on conservation.



Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Information for Bat Handlers

This document provides information on personal protective equipment (PPE) aimed at preventing the transmission of ABLV and other bat-borne pathogens through bat bites and scratches, or via contact with infected urine, faeces, saliva or aerosols. It is intended to provide information for vaccinated bat rehabilitators, researchers, ecologists, veterinarians and associated workers. Use of appropriate PPE will also help prevent disease transmission from the person to the bat. 

COVID-19 and Australian bats - information for bat carers, researchers, and others interacting with bats

See COVID-19 and bats for more information. For general guidance for wildlife carers, field researchers, and others interacting with wildlife, see WHA's COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) Fact Sheet. As this is a dynamic situation, we will continue to assess new information within the Australian context, and update these documents accordingly.

Hendra Virus Testing in Individual Flying Foxes at Necropsy - Information Document

The Bat Health Focus Group has prepared an information document with advice regarding testing of individual flying foxes for Hendra virus. It covers current knowledge, available tests and their limitations, and challenges with interpretation of results. 

This document provides information on white-nose syndrome, a disease that has not been detected in Australia, for people who come into contact with microbats (e.g. bat/wildlife carers, ecologists and other researchers and students, cavers, cave managers, park rangers, members of the public).

National Guidelines for Sample Submission - White-Nose Syndrome - Exclusion Testing  

This document provides a framework to assist veterinarians with the appropriate collection and submission of samples to facilitate the exclusion of white-nose syndrome in Australia.   


National Guidelines for Sample Submission – Tularaemia – Diagnostic Testing  

This document provides a framework to assist veterinarians with the appropriate collection and submission of samples to facilitate the diagnosis or exclusion of tularaemia in free-ranging mammals within Australia (including feral species).



To help you locate additional WHA outputs on our website:

Wildlife health reports

ABLV Bat Stats

Fact Sheets